In what is probably his most well-known book, How Should We Then Live?, Francis Schaeffer uses history, religion, philosophy, art, music, literature, and culture as a background for a discussion of society and how we should be living if we are under God's direction. This book has been instrumental in the recent renewed interest in worldviews among Christians.
Schaeffer approaches worldviews from a Reformed Protestant perspective. While most of what he writes is valid, his Protestant perspective skews his presentation to make it appear that most postive cultural developments came about as a result of the Reformation. Nevertheless, whatever your religious perspective, this is a very thought-provoking book.
Schaeffer discusses artists, authors, and philosphers as though he expects his audience to already be familiar with them. If you don't already have a strong classical education, you might find the breadth of information and ideas presented overwhelming. A video series by the same title is a little easier to understand than the book, so you might consider it as an alternative. (Videos are available through Christian Book Distributors, and other sources.)
Also check out other books by Francis Schaeffer such as The God Who Is There.